UV Mapping in a nutshell is creating the net shape of a 3D object to place a texture or skin on the mesh to give the object a more realistic appearance. The UV Map takes all the planes on your 3D object and lays them out on a flat 2D plane, creating the unwrap which will allow for seamless texturing if made correctly.
Textures and Shaders give a 3D model their form and colour and shadows and highlights. Utilising the UV Map, texturing adds detailed graphics to a net shape that folds around the 3D object. A Shader applies a set off instructions that tell the computer how to display the 3D model, dictating how the model reacts to light, affecting the opacity, glossiness and more.
Rigging a 3D model creates a digital skeleton that allow animators to mould the model into the different poses for an animation. The rig is bound to the 3D mesh, and is made up of many “bones” and joints, like a real skeleton. The character rig is usually compiled by the character technical director.
Animation uses frames with successive pictures or puppet positions to create the illusion of movement. Animation has a series of keyframes, which mark the important poses in the animation loop, and transitional frames, that fill the gaps between keyframes, making the animation run smoothly. There are three main types of animation, traditional, stop-motion and computer generated (CGI), which can either be 2D or 3D animation.
Disclaimer: I don’t own any of the images, they came from sites in my reference list.